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Findings from the Study indicate that the rice value chain in Mali contributes significantly to the economic growth and is fairly inclusive. However, it does face several constraints that limit its sustainability in the economic, social and environmental domains. In order to improve social sustainability, the most critical area on which to act is access to land. Despite the existence of new land legislation, the reality of households/family farmers insecurity remains. The situation of producers remains very fragile with the rules of land management in the area of the Office du Niger. It is necessary to make the business environment more attractive and favourable to the value chain through public investment and infrastructure. Particular attention should also be paid to the most disadvantaged actors (women and youth) and to raise awareness of schooling opportunities in order to deter child labour. To improve environmental sustainability, negative impacts identified in the production phase can be reduced by purchasing policies of environmentally friendly agricultural inputs and improved water management (drainage and aeration). Better control of post-harvest operations and adapted processing equipment (mini-rice mills) would reduce losses during the processing stage.