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Urban livestock keeping is increasing in many sub-Saharan African cities, but detailed contextual information on its extent, challenges, and potential is limited. A cross-sectional household study was done in 2010 in Bamako, Mali. Thirty-two of 67 quarters were randomly selected with selection probability proportional to the size of the human population of the communes. Questionnaire interviews were done with a head of household in 1141 households, comprising 19,816 people in total. Sheep were kept by 16% (95% CI 14–18), while 21% (95% CI 17–24) kept poultry. The sheep to human ratio was 4:100, with an extrapolated city-wide population of 67,636 sheep (95% CI 61,018–75,595). The poultry to human ratio was 11:100, with an extrapolated city-wide population of 191,802 chickens (95% CI 176,212–208,772). For urban livestock holders, household-level enterprise gross margins were calculated for sheep production at USD 103 and poultry production at USD 50 annually. The annual gross margin was estimated at USD 35 per sheep and USD 17 per chicken. Based on these figures, the city-wide urban livestock total gross margin for Bamako in 2010 was estimated at USD 5.6 million. Detailed population data help clarify the urban livestock animal human interface in diverse contexts and highlight the important contributions that urban small-holder production adds to food security and resilience. The potential for urban livestock production informs decision-makers in developing adapted, sustainable policies in resource-constrained environments.